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Tài liệu

Genital skin diseases

 

Genital skin diseases

 

Genital skin diseases in adult females

 

Introduction

The genital area is affected by dermatoses that affect other parts of the skin (see Table 1, below), but management in this area is complicated by the sensitivity and thinness of the skin, the tendency to maceration and infection, and the psychological overlay of a dermatosis affecting this area. Genital itch is more commonly due to dermatoses (such as dermatitis and psoriasis) than infection, and it should not be assumed that a fungal infection is present without microbiological confirmation by low vaginal swab and/or skin scrapings from the genital skin.

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General principles of topical therapy

 

General principles of topical therapy

 

Topical therapy has an important role in the treatment of dermatological conditions. It is employed to deliver active ingredients to the skin, either at the stratum corneum or via percutaneous absorption into the dermis and appendage areas, to provide a protective barrier, or to hydrate and moisturise the skin.

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Eczema, Psoriasis, Cutaneous Infections, Acne, and Other Common Skin Disorders

 

Eczema, Psoriasis, Cutaneous Infections, Acne, and Other Common Skin Disorders

Calvin O. McCall

Thomas J. Lawley

ECZEMA AND DERMATITIS

Eczema, or dermatitis, is a reaction pattern that presents with variable clinical and histologic findings and is the final common expression for a number of disorders, including atopic dermatitis, allergic contact and irritant contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema, nummular eczema, lichen simplex chronicus, asteatotic eczema, and seborrheic dermatitis. Primary lesions may include papules, erythematous macules, and vesicles, which can coalesce to form patches and plaques. In severe eczema, secondary lesions from infection or excoriation, marked by weeping and crusting, may predominate. Long-standing dermatitis is often dry and is characterized by thickened, scaling skin (lichenification).

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Fungal skin and soft tissue infections

 

Fungal skin and soft tissue infections

 

Pityriasis versicolor

 

This chronic, superficial yeast infection of the skin can present with areas of hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation.

It is caused by the budding yeast Malassezia furfur, which is the mycelial phase of the yeast Pityrosporum orbiculare, which is part of the normal skin flora.

The hypopigmentation is due to tyrosinase inhibition by dicarboxylic acids produced by the pityrosporum, with consequent suppression of melanin production. Abnormal melanosomes may also be produced by a disruption in this pathway, accounting for the hyperpigmentation seen in other patients with this disorder.

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Drug eruptions

 

Drug eruptions

 

introduction

 

Cutaneous drug eruptions cause a great deal of consternation and confusion. Is the eruption you are viewing possibly related to a medication; is it likely to be due to a medication; and if so what is the probable culprit? The problem of diagnosis is intensified by the patient taking many drugs, particularly if the drug history is clouded or incomplete. It is essential to obtain a full history of all drug use. This includes prescribed and nonprescription medication and drugs that are ingested, inhaled, injected, inserted or applied (as either drops, creams or patches).

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